Saturday, July 01, 2017

Chapter 18. Sugar Arrives (Part 2)



Another important planter of Anguilla's third generation who died about this time was Darby Carty.  The Cartys first appeared in Anguilla in 1695.  Owin Carty was then mentioned as a former owner of a parcel of land in the Valley Division.  Darby Carty, possibly Owin's son, first appears in the Anguilla Census of 1716.  No woman is listed as being present in his household.  That means that he was then a single man, most likely a widower, as his household contained four children and three slaves.  By the time of the 1717 census the following year, two of his children were adult men in his household, and only one was listed as a child.  He was evidently prospering, as he now owned an additional three slaves.  He must have re-married, as there were now two women in his household, perhaps a wife and a grown-up daughter.  None of his family ventured with Abraham Howell to Crab Island.  Darby Carty Jr signed the Proclamation of 1727.  There was no explanation why Darby Carty Sr did not sign, or indeed, whether he was still alive on Anguilla.
It was probably Darby Carty Jr who purchased a patent to various parcels of land around the pond in Sandy Ground from Governor in Chief John Hart in 1724.[1]  The patent expresses the background in this way,
George, by the Grace of God of Great Britain, France and Ireland, King, Defender of the faith etc. and sovereign Lord of the island of Anguilla and all other His Majesty’s American Plantations and Colonies.
To all to whom these letters patent shall come, greeting.
Whereas we are possessed of divers lands in our said island of Anguilla, and for as much as we are sensible that the settling and improving thereof will in time be of service to us and our [heirs] and the revenue of our Kingdom be thereby augmented, the which we have taken into consideration and being willing to give due encouragement to such persons as are desirous to settle the same, know ye therefore that we of our especial grace certain knowledge and mere motion by and with the advice and consent of our trusty and well beloved John Hart, our Captain General and Governor in Chief in and over all our Leeward Charribee Islands in America lying to the leeward of the island of Guadeloupe and to the windward of the island of Saint John de Porto Rico in America aforesaid, have given, granted and confirm unto our well beloved subject, Darby Carty, his heirs and assigns forever, the certain piece or parcel of land in our said island as hereafter mentioned,
There are several parcels of land, all surrounding the Road Salt Pond on the north, east and south.
viz: a certain plantation or parcel of land lying and being in the Road Division of the said island of Anguilla, bounded on the north side with the land in the possession of Thomas Coakley and Winifred Bates and running north north west to the top of the hills bounded with the northern plantations; thence running east to the land of George Leonard senior; south with the land of Thomas Romney; south and west with the Road Pond, containing by estimation fifty acres, be the same more or less, and now in the tenure and occupation of the aforesaid Darby Carty,
as also one other small piece or parcel of land in the north side of the Road Pond bounded north north west with the land of Thomas Romney senior, thence north to the top of the hills and bounded as aforesaid; east with the land of the aforesaid Thomas Romney senior, south with the Pond and now in the tenure and occupation of the said Darby Carty containing by estimation five acres, be the same more or less,
as also two small slips or portions of land lying on the south side of the Pond, the one bounded north with the Pond, east with the land of Edward Coakley, south to the most southern plantations, west with the land now in the possession of John Pickerin;
the other parcel of land bounded north with the Pond, east with the land of John Pickerin aforesaid, south with the most southern plantations, west with the land now in the possession of Arthur Hodge junior, which both said parcels of land contain about five acres, be the same more or less, and now in the tenure and occupation of the aforesaid Darby Carty,
From these words, we see that Darby Carty was working these lands for some time before he got his patent to them.  By obtaining this patent, he was solidifying his title and making it unchallengeable.  It is not clear what crops or other produce he derived from the lands, but it is probable that it was mainly used for keeping small stock and ground provisions.  By occupying land around the pond he was acquiring the right to pick salt each year during the season.
In 1741 one William Carty, probably a son Darby Carty Sr, witnessed the deed of gift of John Hughes Sr to his son John Hughes Jr.
It is probably Darby Carty Jr’s will of 1757 that we have.[2]  In it he described himself as a planter, but he did not say that he was a sugar planter.  From his will, there is a suggestion that there were grandchildren living at the time.  He left all his estate to his wife Elizabeth, and after her death to his children.  He is particularly proud of his ‘Brenana Garding’, which can only be a mis-spelling for his banana garden.  This, he directs, is to be “at liberty for all my children.”
William Gumbs Sr's widow Elizabeth made her last will in 1760.  She died nine years later.  In addition to the residuary gifts of land made to their children by her husband in 1748, she left to William Jr and Benjamin the Forest Plantation, still known by that name at Forest Bay on the south coast of the island.[3]
In 1764 we see William Gumbs Jr giving his slave son Harry his freedom by the instrument known as a 'deed of manumission'.  By this time he is known as William Gumbs Sr.  It reads:
Anguilla. To all certain people to whom this present writing shall come, I William Gumbs of the above said Island send greeting.
Know ye that I the said William Gumbs Sr for divers good causes and considerations me hereunto moving, but more especially for and in consideration of the love, good will and affection which I have and do bear towards a Mulatto boy known and called by the name of Harry, have given and granted and released and by these presents do hereby clearly and absolutely give, grant and release unto the aforesaid Mulatto boy Harry his freedom and absolute liberty peaceably and quietly to possess and enjoy the same without being disturbed or molested or hindered of the same freedom and liberty by any man or manner of person or persons that shall or may hereafter claim any manner of title to the aforesaid Mulatto boy Harry from, by or under me. 
In Witness Whereof, I have hereunto set my hand and seal this thirty-first day of October and in the year of our Lord God one thousand seven hundred and sixty four, 1764.
Signed, Sealed and Delivered]
In the presence of us:          ](sd)William Gumbs (LS)
(sd) William Bryan
(sd) Thomas Gumbs Sr
This instrument is typical of an Anguillian manumission of our period.  It was the most important document that a free black man in Anguilla could own.  Under the slave laws of the time, if a black man was found 'at large' and could not prove that he was a free man, he was liable to be considered as a slave.  In Anguilla, where most people were known to each other, that might not be much of a risk.  But, a free black man took a risk if travelled to another island, perhaps as a sailor on one of the island schooners, without proof he was a free man.  It was essential that he be able at all times to produce evidence of his status, or risk re-enslavement.  It was not unknown in the days when all cooking was done on open fireplaces, for important documents to be set on fire by accident.  The tragedy that such a mischief caused was for many years captured in the cry, “My free-paper burned”.  School children of today will not be familiar with the expression, but not one hundred years ago, it was common to hear school children of that generation complaining in September, “My free-paper burn!” to indicate the end of the school summer vacation.
Deputy governor Benjamin Gumbs' 1768 will indicates to us the wide extent of his sugar estates and holdings.  Benjamin Gumbs II, as he is also known, was evidently the most powerful man on the island at the time.  He was an important planter and a member of Arthur Hodge's Council from 1741.  He inherited more property at the death of his father, Benjamin Gumbs Sr, in 1748.  In 1750 he was appointed deputy governor of Anguilla.  He ruled over a Council that consisted of the island's major merchants and planters.  He governed Anguilla until his death in 1768.  He left a large family, most of whom appear to have emigrated from the island within a few years of his death.  His youngest son Benjamin Gumbs III was appointed deputy governor in his turn.  Benjamin Jr was later to become famous as the Col Benjamin Gumbs who led the defence of Anguilla against the French in 1797.  But, that is outside of our period.
Benjamin Gumbs II made his last will on his deathbed in 1768.  He evidently wrote the will himself, as the bequests are written in a way that a lawyer would not have written them.  They are very confused.  He makes gifts of land he previously gave away by deed.  Despite such confused bequests, we are grateful that he listed his extensive sugar holdings in full.  These included Statia Valley, Katouche Bay and Shoal Bay Plantations, True Loves, Hazard Hill, and Dog Island.[4]  A contemporary legal opinion by St Kitts attorney John Barker on the validity and effect of the bequests in his will is filed in the Archives together with his will.  They were exhibits in litigation that took place after his death, which is why they have survived.
One of deputy governor Gumbs’ devises is of his sugar estate at Katouche Bay which he left under the name ‘Catouche Bay Plantation’ to his two daughters, daughters Ann Warner and Catherine Payne.  They received the northern and southern halves respectively.  The dwelling house and its appurtenances were on the southern half.  It was his wish that the boiling house on the southern half should be held by each of them in equal shares.  From this we learn that there was an animal round, boiling house and curing house associated with the plantation.  The sisters operated Katouche Bay as a sugar plantation until an extended period of drought caused it to revert to ground provisions and grazing of small-stock.  Little is left of the early sugar works.  All that survives relatively intact is the old plantation well.  It was used for drawing water for cattle and small stock pastured around until the middle of the last century.  Now that it too is abandoned, it is slowly falling into disrepair.  The northern and southern escarpments of the valley show evidence of continuing and recent erosion.  The many boulders that litter the ground lie there as mute testimony to the futile effort that was put into trying to squeeze some profit out of the ground over the past centuries.
The location of the boiling house can be found, if with difficulty.  It has completely collapsed, and trees now grow out of the rubble.  There is no trace of either the animal round or the curing house where the barrels were stored until they were ready to be shipped.  The animal round was on the slope immediately above the boiling house.  We know that because the architecture of a sugar factory of this type required that the juice from the mill run by gravity to the boiling house where it dripped into the boilers waiting for it.  The soil from higher up the hill has subsequently eroded and covered the site of the round.  There are no ruins of foundations of houses to be seen anywhere on the slopes of the valley.  The buildings of the estate were evidently never very substantial, and have now eroded away.
There is no sign of the ruins of a jetty from which the hogsheads of sugar were shipped.  The road on the northern slope leading out of the valley is steep, running through the Masara Resort.  The sugar ruins can also be accessed from the east by the ancient Amerindian footpath which is still in use to this date.  The old public footpath from North Hill to Crocus Bay passes along the clifftop through Katouche Bay.
The sugar works at Katouche Bay are almost completely disappeared.  It was a poor and unproductive estate, and could not afford a jetty.  When Benjamin Gumbs II cured what little sugar his estate produced, his workers rolled the barrels of muscovado sugar from the curing house down to the beach.  Muscovado sugar was the name given to sugar of the lowest quality.  It was raw or unrefined sugar obtained from the juice of the sugar-cane by evaporation and draining of the molasses.  At the beach, the barrels were tipped into rowing boats and taken out to the visiting ships that transhipped them to their destination.  There was no need for Benjamin Gumbs to go to the expense of building a jetty.
Of all the sugar works and plantation buildings that must once have stood on this site, only the old estate well is easy to locate.  It lies just off the track that runs up the middle of the valley from the beach to Government House.  It is some eight feet in diameter and ten feet to the water.  It lies within a short distance of the ruined boiling house.  The well was preserved because it was kept in use until the 1950s for watering the cattle that more recent farmers pastured in the valley.  The well is the only real evidence that remains of the previous agricultural use of this valley.  The water in the well is only some two feet deep.  The well is lined with cut stone held together by lime, evidence of its comparative old age.  It is now abandoned and beginning to be filled with garbage.
William Coakley’s 1768 will dealt with the important Coakley’s Road Estate.[5]  The Coakleys appeared early in the records of Anguilla.  Two Edward Coakleys and one Thomas Coakley were listed in the 1716 census.[6]  One of the Edwards was obviously a young man, just married with no children and only four slaves.  The other Edward had five children and twelve slaves.  Thomas had nine children and twenty two slaves.  Thomas Coakley, Edward Coakley Jr, and Caesar Coakley signed the 1717 Crab Island petition.  They were present with Abraham Howell for the 1717 Crab Island census.[7]  On Crab Island, only Thomas was accompanied by slaves, three of them.  Edward left five slaves behind with his wife and three children.  William Coakley did not accompany the party to Crab but was present on Anguilla for the 1717 census.[8]  He was then married with six children and eighteen slaves.  He was a planter of substance on Anguilla even at that time.  Edward, Thomas Sr, and Caesar Coakley all survived the Crab Island escapade to sign the 1727 proclamation.[9]  Edward Coakley is next seen witnessing deputy governor John Richardson's will in 1739.[10]
Coakley's Road Estate was a sugar plantation at Sandy Ground, running to the south and east of the Road Salt Pond.  The ruins of the sugar works stood until recently on a plot of land at Sandy Ground beach, just to the south of the Customs building.  They have now disappeared to make way for modern construction.  The plantation house stood on the eastern slopes of North Hill, adjacent to what is now the old Road cemetery.  We know that from William Coakley’s will, which reads:
Item.  I do hereby order and set apart one piece or parcel of land situate in my plantation in the Road Division and adjoining to my dwelling house by a Tamarind Tree within my fence such piece or parcel of land to be about forty yards square and attributed only for my own and my family's burial place.
Item.  I cut my daughter Sarah Coakley out of all my estate real and personal only allowing her one shilling, even fruit from off my fruit trees or one drop of water out of my well as being an undutiful child.
Item.  I give devise and bequeath unto each and every of my sons, viz, William, Edward, John, Samuel, Solomon, Benjamin, Richard and Joseph all my real estate except that part which I attributed for my burial place, share and share alike, to them, their heirs and assigns forever such equal shares to be made and divided amongst them at the time that the youngest of them shall arrive to the age of twenty one years, but in case of the death of any or either of my said sons the survivors shall have and possess such part or parts as may happen to belong to any such son or sons that may happen to depart this life before the time of the said division to be shared, share and share alike, between my surviving sons. . . .
Item.  It is my will and desire that there may be three tombs built at the expense of my said estate, that is to say, such three tombs to be erected over the graves of my father, my mother and my brother Thomas.
William Coakley's 1768 will sheds light on the little walled cemetery near to the well under North Hill and presently named the Old Anglican Cemetery.  This is really the old Coakley family cemetery, later turned over to the Anglican Church.  The tombs presently visible but overgrown with bushes and brambles include the three tombs that William made provision for in his will.  Of the Coakley home nothing remains but the old well and the cemetery.
In the 1749 conveyance of John Farrington to Solomon Romney of the Romney estate at Blowing Point, Edward and William Coakley were described as forming the southern boundary.[11]  They probably owned the estate between Blowing Point harbour and the Romney estate on the north.  The Coakleys settled and occupied substantial areas of both Blowing Point and Sandy Ground.
There is only one court case in the records of the Archives that tells us anything further about the Coakleys.  In a case of 1752, we see William Coakley Sr suing his neighbour Edward Hughes for encroaching on his Road Plantation.[12]
February 9th, 1751/2
At a Meeting of His Majesty's Council, Being present
Honourable Benjamin Gumbs Esq,               Deputy Governor
Benjamin Roberts                              ]
Joseph Burnett                    ]               Esq’s and Members of ye Council
Thomas Gumbs                  ]
William Coakley Sr sues Edward Hughes for having lands of said Coakley in his possession.
It is the opinion of this Council that the several parcels of land in ye Road shall be run out, and accordingly as said parcels of land measure, the same shall be adjusted between the said Coakley and Hughes.
Signed by Command
Benjamin Roberts,
Clerk to the Council.
Table 3: William Coakley Sr v Edward Hughes.
Edward Hughes' Plantation on South Hill was one of the major plantations on Anguilla (see illus 3).  It was long ago broken up into small parcels of land.  The older people at South Hill to this day call the land that stretches from Long Bay in the west to the Methodist Church at South Hill ‘the Hughes' Estate’.  The Hughes and Coakleys were neighbours, and were related.  At the old Coakley family cemetery, founded by William Coakley, the one surviving legible tombstone is that of an Elizabeth Hughes.
The sugar plantations of John Richardson[13] and William Gumbs[14] are the only ones actually mentioned as such in documents dated prior 1750.  In later documents there are several other sugar plantations referred to.  These include those of Thomas Hodge and Richard Richardson. They were probably growing sugar cane during an earlier period.  In 1743, Anguilla, Spanish Town and Tortola with three thousand slaves are reported making about one thousand hogsheads of sugar and one million pounds of cotton.  There is no indication how much, if any, came from Anguilla.


3. The smoke house for curing meat to the west of the ruin of the Hughes Great House at South Hill (by the author).
The evidence of sugar cane cultivation increases in the second half of the century.  In May 1765 there is a list of customs declarations made by various Anguillian planters, or their managers, for the export of sugar from Anguilla.
1              Anguilla, I, Benjamin Gumbs, do swear that the following two Hogsheads of rum and eight barrels of muscovado sugar which are intended to be shipped on board the Sloop Dispatch, John Claxton Commander, and bound for Georgia are of the growth, produce and manufacture of the said Benjamin Gumbs' plantation in the Parish of Spring Division in this island. 
The above affidavit was sworn in my presence the third day of May 1765.
                                (sd) Benjamin Gumbs
                (sd) David Hunter
***
2              Anguilla, I Thomas Hodge do swear that the following three Hogsheads of rum and one Hogshead of sugar which are shipped on board the Sloop Wild Daniel, David Hill master, and bound for Virginia are of the growth produce and manufacture of said Thomas Hodge's Plantation in the Parish of The Valley Division in this Island. 
The above affidavit was sworn in my presence on the fifteenth day of May 1765.
                                (sd) Thomas Hodge
                (sd) Benjamin Gumbs
                Governor and Collector
***
3              Anguilla, I Benjamin Gumbs Esq do swear that the following two Hogsheads of rum and six barrels of sugar which are shipped on board the Sloop Wild Daniel, David Hill master, and bound for Virginia are the growth produce or manufacture of said Benjamin Gumbs Esq's Plantation in the Road Division in this Island. 
The above affidavit was sworn in my presence on the 15th day of May 1765.
                                (sd) Benjamin Gumbs
                (sd) Benjamin Roberts
***
4              Anguilla, I David Sagers Manager of Mr Richard Richardson's Plantation do swear that the twelve barrels of sugar and one Hogshead of rum which are shipped on board the Sloop Wild Daniel, David Hill master, for Virginia are of the growth produce or manufacture of said Richard Richardson's Plantation in the Parish of the Road Division in this Island. 
The above affidavit was sworn in my presence the fifteenth day of May 1765.
                                (sd) David Sagers
                (sd) Benjamin Gumbs
                Governor and Collector
***
5              Anguilla, I Thomas Hodge do swear that the following fifteen Hogsheads of muscovado sugar which are intended to be shipped on board the Brigantine Abraham whereof Roger Woodburn is master and bound to Great Britain are the growth produce or manufacture of said Thomas Hodge's Plantation in the Parish of The Valley Division in this Island. 
The above affidavit was sworn in my presence the 24th day of May 1765.
                                (sd) Thomas Hodge
                (sd) David Hunter
Justice of the Peace
***
6              Anguilla, I Benjamin Gumbs Esq do swear that the following [ . . . ] barrels of sugar which are intended to be shipped on board the [ . . . ] Hanna, Henry Haughton master, and bound for North Carolina are of the growth produce or manufacture of said Benjamin Gumbs Esq's Plantation in the Parish of the Road Division in this Island. 
The above affidavit was sworn to in my presence on the 24th day of May 1765.
                                (sd) Benjamin Gumbs
                (sd) Benjamin Roberts
Table 4: Customs declarations for Anguillian sugar in 1765.  (Anguilla Archives)
These affidavits show deputy governor Benjamin Gumbs performing his duty as collector of customs and enforcer of the Navigation Acts.  What accuracy can be ascribed to these declarations is uncertain.  The planters who swore to their truth had a financial interest in minimising the amount of sugar they made.  Most of it they preferred not to declare, but to illegally trade with the Dutch for the goods they needed.  These planters were all related to the deputy governor by blood or by marriage.  They were all members of his ruling island Council.  He was one of them in so many ways.  The product of each estate declared as being shipped was very small.  One was as little as one hogshead of sugar.  The biggest was only fifteen hogsheads.  One of the planters, Richard Richardson, was even substantial enough to employ a manager of his plantation, David Sagers.[15]  Not all Anguilla’s sugar was declared as being exported to the mainland northern colonies.  Virginia, Georgia and North Carolina are named.  Some of the sugar was being shipped directly to Great Britain.
It would not be safe to draw any conclusions about the extent or the success of Anguilla’s sugar industry from these declarations.  No other similar declarations from either later or earlier years are preserved.  The most that we can say with some certainty is that in the year 1765 some small amount of sugar was exported from Anguilla.  We also learn the location of a number of the sugar plantations.  We see them throughout the island in each of the three Divisions: Spring, Valley and Road.  Deputy governor Gumbs owned a sugar plantation in Spring Division and another in Road Division.  Thomas Hodge owned one in The Valley Division, while Richard Richardson’s was in Road Division.
By the year 1770, Anguilla's sugar exports were sufficient for the first time to be separately given in the economic statistics and tables of the Leeward Islands.  They were pathetically small when compared with the figures of the exports from the other islands (see table 5).[16]
From
To Britain
North America
Other Islands
Antigua
£430,210
£35,551
£230
St Kitts
367,074


Nevis
43,828
14,155

Anguilla
3,800
2,058

Dominica
43,395
16,496

Montserrat
89,907
12,633

Virgin Islands
61,696
10,133

Table 5: Sugar Exports of the Leeward Islands in 1770. (Southey)
With a total of less than £6,000 in sugar exports for the year, Anguilla is producing just 10% of her nearest competitor, Dominica.  It is fair to assume that the export figures reflect the production figures.  This shows how tiny Anguilla’s sugar production was in comparison to the richer islands around her.  Weather and other agricultural conditions in Anguilla remained so difficult that no amount of dedication and hard work could draw any significant quantity of sugar out of her soil.
We search the literature in vain hoping to find anything published that will reveal details of the agriculture of Anguilla during our period.  In the mid-1750s the author of a leading popular work on commerce claimed to describe conditions in Anguilla at this time.[17]  He wrote that the settlers produced no great quantity of sugar on the island.  Rather, they devoted themselves to farming ground provisions at which they were very successful.  It was this farming that allowed them to live in the manner of the old biblical patriarchs.  Every man was sovereign in his own family.  According to him, they wished for no other sort of government in Anguilla.  This information is out of date.  It is no more than a repetition of Oldmixon’s inaccurate and condescending 1708 description.[18]  At this time, Anguilla was at the height of a short-lived period of prosperity.
A typical Anguillian boiling house, animal round, and curing house of the eighteenth century can still be seen in the ruins at Benzies, over the Shannon Hill on the north coast (see illus 4, 5 and 6).  Who Benzie was is not now known.  The ruins of the boiling house and curing house at Benzies lie overgrown with trees and scrub, in a sad state of disrepair, almost on the beach.
4. The overgrown ruin of the sugar boiling house at Benzies (by the author).
They are very small in comparison to the ruins of the other sugar islands.  They were not in use for any long period of time.  We do not know if this small, abandoned factory ever made any sugar.  We do not know who owned it.  ‘Benzies’ is more accurately the name of a nearby bay, used for swimming years ago by the residents of North Hill.
The West Indian sugar plantation of the eighteenth century is tied to the condition of slavery.  The slaves of Anguilla were treated no differently from those elsewhere in the Caribbean.  The times were cruel for both Africans and Europeans.  Barbaric legal punishments were the custom of the period, even in England.  The penalty for any type of mutiny among whites and blacks was severe.  In the three planters’ wills from the period before 1750 that have survived, it is to be noticed that not one slave is given his or her freedom, although this was to become a common feature of later wills.[19]  Indeed, the slaves of Anguilla were just as discontented as those of the other islands.
There is some evidence that they planned to take part in the great slave uprising in St Bartholomew of 1736.  In January 1737, Governor William Mathew enclosed with his report an affidavit sworn by John Hanson of Antigua referring to a slave conspiracy discovered in French St Martin.[20]  The Anguillian slaves were said to be part of the planned rebellion and they were to join with those in St Martin.
5. The ruined and overgrown, plastered inside wall of the curing house at Benzies (by the author).
There is no information, however, on who the leaders of the Anguillian slave rebellion were, or on the outcome of the plan.  There was also a big slave uprising in Antigua that year, which was savagely suppressed.  Mutilation and maiming, if not death, would be the fate of any Anguillian black people discovered in planning to join the rebellion in St Martin.


6. The overgrown, derelict animal round at Benzies sugar works (by the author).
Commerce and society among the planters and merchants reached a high point in Anguilla in the last few decades before the rebellion in the northern colonies of America brought ruin to many of them.  Law suits recorded in the Anguilla Archives after 1776 were no longer brought for tens of pounds sterling but for smaller amounts of mere shillings and pence.  The second Anguillian war of 1796 completed the destruction of the colony’s economy.  It would remain in a depressed state for nearly 200 years.
The sugar plantations ceased to be worked in the last quarter of the eighteenth century.  The slaves were rented out to planters in other islands to help earn their keep and to produce income for their impoverished white and coloured Anguillian masters.  After years of service in Aruba and elsewhere, they eventually returned to the island, with enough money to purchase their freedom.  There is a fascinating series of deeds in the Anguilla Archives, towards the end of the eighteenth and in the early decades of the nineteenth centuries.  These slaves, returning after years of rented labour in other islands, saved their money.  First they purchased their own freedom.  Then they purchased that of their spouses and children, for hundreds of pounds sterling in some cases.  Then, they purchased the lands and remaining estate of their previous masters, usually for a few paltry pounds.
The plantation lands of Anguilla ceased to have any value for their previous white owners.  These disappeared, presumably in large part to the US mainland.  There they were absorbed into that country's melting pot.  Their descendants and those of their ex-slaves who remained in Anguilla intermarried and carry their names still.  They are the Anguillians of today.  Throughout the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, the qualities of character and spirit that enabled the early Anguillians to survive and persist were refined in the furnace of drought, neglect and hardship.  These qualities produced the present-day islanders.  The basic elements of white and black, seaman and subsistence farmer, contributed to shape the Anguillians of today.  These are rightful heirs of George Leonard, Abraham Howell, John Richardson and Benjamin Gumbs.
The End



[1]       Patent issued by Governor John Hart in St Kitts to Darby Carty, located in the Anguilla Record of Deeds, 1792-1803 in the St Kitts Archives, transcribed by Heather Nielson in 2005.
[2]       Anguilla Archives: Darby Carty’s 1757 Will.
[3]       Anguilla Archives: Elizabeth Gumbs’ 1760 Will.
[4]       Anguilla Archives: Benjamin Gumbs’ 1768 Will.
[5]       Anguilla Archives: William Coakley’s 1768 Will.
[6]       Chapter 10: Crab Island Revisited.
[7]       Chapter 10 ibidem.
[8]       Chapter 10 ibidem.
[9]       Chapter 10 ibidem.
[10]     See ante.
[11]     Chapter 5: The Second Generation.
[12]     Anguilla Archives: A selection of 1741-1776 judicial decisions.
[13]     Anguilla Archives: John Richardson’s 1739 Will.
[14]     Anguilla Archives: William Gumbs’ 1748 Will.
[15]     Chapter 11: Cotton and Salt.
[16]     Southey op cit, Vol 2 p.407.
[17]     Malachai Postlethwaite, A Universal Dictionary of Trade and Commerce (1757).
[18]     See Chapter 6: War and the Settlers.
[19]     Anguilla Archives: Peter Rogers’ 1731 Will, see Chapter 14;  John Richardson’s 1739 Will ante;  and William Gumbs’ 1748 Will ante.
[20]     CO.152/22, folio 302: Mathew to the Committee on 17 January 1737.